Remote sensing technology perspective of the Mausoleum of The First Emperor of Qin, four mysteries were discovered inside the underground palace, why can not be excavated?

2022-07-29 0 By

There is a legend at the foot of the Lishan Mountain, whenever the sky is overcast, the depth of the mountain will come a burst of golden bell sound, accompanied by orderly and low footsteps, the tomb owner’s copper coffin floating in the dark river filled with mercury.Float to the entrance of the crypt altar under the escort of shadow soldiers.Then his soul would leave the copper coffin and ascend to this magnificent nine-tiered altar, where he would look up at the sun, the moon and the stars, looking down on all the rivers and seas, and be forever supreme.The tomb belonged to qin Shi Huang, the first emperor in Chinese history.Is the tomb depicted in this story true?With these questions in mind, in 1962 archaeologists conducted the first comprehensive survey of the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.After careful measurements, the sealed soil of the Qin Mausoleum is 55 meters high, 345 meters long from east to west and 350 meters wide from north to south, covering an area of about 120,000 square meters, equivalent to the size of 17 football fields.The mausoleum is centered on sealed earth and extends outwards with two layers of inner and outer walls, about 8 to 10 meters high.The inner city perimeter is 3840 meters and the outer city perimeter is 6210 meters.On all sides of the wall are tall gates, symbolizing the dignity and majesty of the son of Heaven.Outside this is the cluster burial area, a total of more than 600 burial pits, with the mausoleum as the core of the scene.According to the archaeological team, the area covered 56.25 square kilometers, equivalent to 78 times the size of Beijing’s Forbidden City.The news shocked the world.The Great Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt covers an area of 50,000 square meters, while the Tomb of Qin is 2.4 times larger.According to historical records, the Mausoleum was designed by the prime minister Li Si and overseen by zhang Han, a young family member. It took 39 years to complete the construction with 800,000 migrant workers.But as the archaeology continues, four mysteries emerge!First: was it stolen?According to records of the Grand Historian, Xiang Yu destroyed the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang on a large scale after he invaded Guanzhong, destroyed the ground buildings and excavated the mausoleum.In addition, many people saw xiang Yu destroying the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang in the Biography of Liu Xiang in the Book of Han.Later, a shepherd boy was herding sheep around the Qin Mausoleum when a sheep fell into a hole in the ground. The shepherd boy carried a torch to look for it and stumbled into the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum by mistake. He was surprised and started a fire that burned down the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin.If the history books are correct, the mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin must have been an empty tomb, with all its treasures looted.In order to solve this mystery, in 2002, the national 863 Archaeological Project of The Mausoleum of The First Emperor of Qin was officially launched. This operation brought together more than 100 top archaeological experts in China, and used the most advanced remote sensing technology at that time to carry out a comprehensive exploration of the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin.The archaeological team drilled more than 50,000 small holes around the tomb. They found walls as thick as five meters and tunnel entrances to the underground palace, as well as a number of stolen holes, the largest of which is one meter in diameter and nine meters deep.However, all of these stolen holes deviated from the direction without exception. Through remote sensing, it was found that the burial goods in the tomb were neatly placed, and the environment in the tomb passage was relatively dry without water seepage.Evidence shows that the mausoleum of The First Emperor of Qin has remained intact for thousands of years.This is good news, considering that nearly all of China’s more than 500 known imperial tombs have been stolen, with only two remaining to this day: the Qianling mausoleum, where Emperor Gaozong Li Zhi and Wu Zetian are buried, and the mausoleum of The First Emperor of Qin.Second: where do 100 tons of mercury come from?Archaeological experts have found mercury levels dozens of times higher than in the surrounding soil.If the data are correct, this could be the result of mercury escaping from the subterranean chambers.And remote sensing technology has detected a large amount of fluid flowing in the womb. Could this liquid be mercury?It is recorded in Shiji · Chronicles of The First Emperor of qin that a large amount of mercury was used in the Qin Mausoleum to simulate rivers, lakes and seas, and some mechanism was used to make them flow continuously. However, mercury volatilizes very slowly in a closed space, so it still flows in the underground palace.And experts also detected that the location of a metal object in the palace often changes, experts explained that because mercury is more dense than copper, so this may be the Copper coffin of qin Shihuang floating on mercury.Through all-round exploration, the liquid in the underground palace is the most in the northeast, followed by the south and the least in the northwest.This distribution is exactly in line with the trend of China’s mountains, rivers and lakes. Look at the map of China, the northeast is the sea, the south is the Yangtze River and lakes, and the northwest is less arid.So it seems that the records of the Grand Historian is true, and that there is indeed a great deal of mercury hidden in the earth.But a new problem arose. It would take hundreds of tons of mercury to float the coffin.However, historical records show that even in the Song Dynasty, the annual production of mercury was only 1.1 tons, which is equal to the production of 100 years in the Song Dynasty. This is simply a fantasy.Where did all that mercury come from?Experts consulted materials and found a rich woman named Ba Qing in the History of shiji, who was engaged in the business of extracting alchemy sand and mastered advanced smelting technology. She formed a local monopoly and accumulated a large amount of capital. Her family continued to prosper for several generations.Sima Qian clearly recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian that Baqing was the only supplier of red sand for the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang.As an important raw material for the production of mercury, red sand was continuously transported to the construction site of the Qin Mausoleum, and then through smelting technology to refine red sand into mercury, so that the palace had hundreds of tons of mercury.In recognition of her achievements, Qin Shi Huang allowed her to have a private army and built a “Huai Qing Tai” to show the world.Well, now that the mercury question is settled, what else does this great seal hide?Eager to find out the truth as soon as possible, the archaeologists decided to continue their investigation, but an even bigger mystery emerged!Third: the mystery of the nine layers altar when archaeological team using remote sensing detector to more in-depth exploration on horses, they found a strange gravity anomalies, a finding that let the team long felt very surprised, because only buildings will cause the gravity anomaly, the large buildings are still under the horses?Captain Duan was very puzzled. He had been engaged in archaeology for decades and had read numerous historical books. He had never heard of any building under the seal.He thought the team’s measurements might have been wrong, so he led the team to reinvestigate. The results still showed gravity anomalies, and the detection of what could be a huge rammed earth platform.In order to solve the mystery, he immediately took action, using luoyang shovel vertical measurement, the result of a shovel down indeed found 6 to 7 cm of rammed earth, is there really a huge altar under the seal?With the further exploration, we finally found that the building under the seal was wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, similar to the shape of an inverted pyramid, with a square of 500 meters in length and width at the bottom, a total of nine layers, indicating the meaning of the ninth five.The entire building is ten stories high and the size of five football fields.From the shape, it is indeed an altar, but the altar is for later generations to worship ancestors, are built on the ground.However, the altar was built under the soil seal. The archaeological team leader was very puzzled and suddenly thought of the legend at the foot of the Lishan Mountain. Is it really for The Emperor Qin Shi Huang to climb the nine-story altar after his death, so as to overlook his empire?Section captain through the classics finally in the “Book of han” to find these eight words: into the view of the tour, into the mountains.Among them, the “Zhongcheng Sightseeing” should be said that the soul of The First Emperor of Qin left the tomb and went on a sightseeing tour overlooking all living beings.There is a story in “Three Fu Decision Record” of the Jin Dynasty. After xiang Yu entered the Pass, he sent 300,000 people to rob and dig the Qin Mausoleum.In the process of digging, a golden goose was suddenly found. It escaped from the crowd and jumped out of the tomb, flying several feet in the air to the south, so that the people present were terrified.In the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), the great master lu Ban was able to make flying wooden geese. So it is not surprising that a few hundred years later, craftsmen in the Qin Dynasty were able to make flying golden geese.But even in ancient times, when technology was not important, it would have been a miracle if such a complex machine had been built 2,000 years ago.2) the eternal light “Shiji · Qin Shihuang Ben Ji” records, to merpeople paste as a candle, degree is not destroyed for a long time.It means that the eternal lamps in the underground palace of The First Emperor of qin were made of human fish oil, which could last forever.This fish oil is actually whale oil. There is also a story in Records of the Grand Historian that Xu Fu tricked Emperor Qin Shihuang into going to sea to hunt whales, but historians think it is not very reliable.Until 2002, 36,000 slips were unearthed in Liye Town, west of Xiangxi, Hunan province, which did record the emperor’s whale hunting trips to Zhifu, Shandong Province.3) We all know the story that the jade seal belongs to The State of Zhao.Later, Emperor Qin Shi Huang unified the whole country and ordered people to carve the jade seal of He Shi Bi, which symbolizes imperial power and status.Because so far no one has seen the legendary seal, but the rumor of this seal radius of four inches, carved above a dragon, positive engraved: “ordered by the day, both longevity and chang” said the imperial power granted by heaven, orthodox and legal tokens, but also because of such successive emperors fought for each other, several hands changed, the final whereabouts unknown disappeared.Is it possible that Qin Shi Huang, as the creator of the imperial seal, brought it to the underground palace?And later appeared the imperial seal is fake?If you think about it, it’s possible. After all, Qin Shi Huang was so greedy for power that he wanted to be a proper emperor in the afterlife. Besides, he built such a huge underground palace and the Terracotta Warriors, the eighth wonder of the world.In ancient times, our ancestors created a splendid culture.By the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period, there was a flourishing situation in which a hundred schools of thought contended, and abundant cultural classics were handed down.However, after emperor Qin Shi Huang ascended the throne, in order to unify his thoughts, he burned books and buried scholars, resulting in the burning of many precious classics.For example, the classic of Mountains and Seas, The Three Graves, the Five Canon, the Eight Suos, the Nine Hills, the Classics of The Yellow Emperor, the Book of Lu Ban, and the Art of Taigong were all destroyed.But legend has it that Li Si, the prime minister of the Qin Dynasty, copied a copy in advance and hid it in the official archives before burning it.So will these ancient books end up buried in the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum?If these ancient books were ever to be seen again, it would create a sensation all over the world.It was described in the Commentary on The Passage of Water: Weishui that after the Red Eyebrow army invaded Chang ‘an, they dug the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang and “removed the copper in the coffin”.Sima Qian also left a “copper and coffin” in the Records of the Grand Historian, so it seems that qin Shihuang’s coffin is likely to be made of bronze, according to the conventional size of 2 meters by 1 meter, then it will become one of the largest bronze ware in the world.According to archaeologists, there is indeed a metal object moving in the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum, which is likely to be the bronze coffin of emperor Qin Shi Huang.You have to admire the wisdom of the ancients, because mercury is more sealed than copper, so the copper coffin can float on the mercury, so that qin Shi Huang can lie in his coffin, floating on the mercury made of rivers, lakes and seas, continue to patrol his empire.Although we have detected the general situation of the Qin Mausoleum through remote sensing technology, it is not on-site excavation after all.We have not yet seen how many treasures there are in the dungeon.But judging from the bronze chariots and horses and the massive terracotta army that have already been unearthed, the burial objects are so exquisite that you can imagine that the treasures in the underground palace must be unparalleled.Then some friends will ask why the country does not carry out archaeological excavations.Even sanxingdui, a 5,000-year-old site, has resumed excavation, so why the delay?Actually, that’s not a good one.The most important thing is that it’s too difficult!First, it is known that there is a large amount of mercury in the underground palace of The Qin Mausoleum, and the mercury vapor formed by mercury is highly toxic. Opening it hastily will not only destroy cultural relics, but also endanger people’s lives.And the very purpose of doing so is to prevent theft.In addition, records of the Grand Historian recorded that a set of automatic firing dark crossbow facilities were installed in the Qinling underground palace, which would trigger the mechanism once someone entered.Second: technical difficulties Many people know that when the terracotta Warriors were unearthed, they were colorful and lifelike.It is because of backward technical means, so less than a few minutes all oxidized, became now the appearance of gray tutu, very pity.Examples like this abound in archaeology, so we don’t want to go back to them without knowing for sure.During the excavation of Ming Ding’s mausoleum in 1956, thousands of calligraphy and paintings, silk and satin were rapidly decaying due to improper protection, which became a great tragedy in the archaeological history.Discovery and preservation has been a fundamental decision in archaeology ever since, and continues to this day.Rescue excavations are carried out only if they have been stolen or vandalized.However, with the continuous development of artificial intelligence and virtual reality in recent years, holographic perspective technology has also begun to emerge, perhaps one day in the future, we really can not open the tomb without opening the situation, the grand display of qin Mausoleum underground palace!Well, that’s all for this episode, and you can watch the full video here!