How did Santa Claus become The saviour of France?
Joseph Jacques Sezer Chaffee was the French commander-in-chief during World War I. He was born in Rivosart, pyrenees, to a family of winemakers.Since childhood taciturn, stable personality, although slightly dull, but extremely tough, have “dull general” said.After graduating from engineering school, he was drafted into the army as an engineer second lieutenant in the Franco-Prussian War. In the war of invading Africa and Vietnam, Chaffee presided over military construction projects for many times.Chaffee was tall and burly, with thick eyebrows and a beard, white skin and blue eyes, quiet eyes like Santa Claus, with a kind, down-to-earth air, though he had none of it.Chaffee’s talent for military command was revealed in the 1892 Senegalese rebellion, when the Taurig rebellion in Senegal routed the French army. Chaffee chased down and led the defeated army to put down the rebellion.Since then, Xiafei has been in the ranks of brigade commander, division commander and army commander.In 1911, Germany and France are competing for Morocco and simmer and has the potential of coming, explosive, the time of the French army minister Mr Lionel messi, who presented the addo it still young at the time, as the highest military commission vice chairman and chief of staff, the first world war broke out in 1914, it became the French army commander in chief.German strategist Schlieffen once asserted that a successful cannae battle would require not only a clever Hannibal, but also a foolish opponent like Farrow.Chaffee was the “stupid adversary” predicted by the Schlieffen Plan.While the German chief of staff, Maugge The Younger, was pushing ahead with the Schlieffen plan, Chaffee introduced the French battle plan, known as Plan Seventeen.Chaffee decided that the war would take place on the Border between Germany and France. The Main force of the French army would attack Alsace and Lorraine, which had been lost in the Franco-Prussian War. However, the main direction of the German attack was Belgium and the Ardennes mountains, and the French army only made a small number of reserve forces to defend and completely fell into the German trap.The French were able to take some ground while the Germans were luring them in. But when the Germans made a firm stand and counterattacked, they were unable to do so. Within a month of the war, the French had lost more than three hundred thousand men.Both in the Direction of Belgium and on the Border between Germany and France, the French army was routed. Almost everyone was in a panic, except the slow Chaffee, who was surprisingly calm and commanded the French army to retreat while fighting.Chaffee was not particularly foolish. He removed some ineffective generals and replaced later French marshals such as Petain and Foch.When Paris is about to fall, the German cooperation with a serious error, General Luke did not plan to encircle Paris, but continue to chase the defeat of the French army, exposed the German flanks.Defending Paris veteran Gallieni urged to fight, Xiafei was defeated by the French army issued counter-offensive orders, the country’s survival, should go all out to attack and beat back the enemy, would rather die in battle must not retreat again.Under the command of the Chaffee, more than 1 million French army to stop retreat, turned guns to the German counterattack, in the British and French coalition forces continue to reinforce the attack, more than 300 thousand German first army into the segmentation surrounded by the situation, small Maoqi quickly ordered retreat, this is the famous Marne miracle.The defeat of the Battle of the Marne shattered Little Molky’s dream of uniting the two armies in Paris, while the Schlieffen plan quickly went bankrupt, and the two sides entered a protracted war.In 1915, Chaffee launched the Champaign and Altus offensives, resulting in great casualties but few gains. From then on, both sides entered positional warfare and trench warfare, which were difficult for the aggressor to win on the battlefield.In 1916, the German army launched the Battle of Verdun after defeating the Russian army on the eastern front, saying that the Fort of Verdun would be used as a “millstone to crush the French army” and drain the French army of blood.Chaffee, on the other hand, advocated “grinding against grinding” and constantly sent more troops to Verdun. After six months of fierce fighting, the French army finally recaptured the lost territory and the German army was defeated again.In order to relieve the pressure on Verdun, Chaffee organized a major anglo-French attack on the German army at the Somme river, forcing the German army to reduce the momentum of the attack at Verdun.The French then launched two counter-attacks, both of which were successful. The Battles of Verdun and Somme were the most important turning points on the Western Front of World War I. From then on, the French army turned to the offensive, which was a strategic success.However, due to the two battles of the French army losses are extremely heavy, Chaffee therefore lost real power, changed to the French government military adviser, promoted marshal in the same month.It is a pity that Chaffee, as the “savior” of France, did not show the ability to turn the tide, and even made several stupid moves.Outgunned, Chaffee advocated a desperate attack, resulting in the loss of large sections of the French army under German machine-gun fire.Plan 17, not to mention the loss of life at Verdun and the Somme, was a throwback to the Schlieffen Plan.But without Chaffee, the French might not have survived the war.At the beginning of the war, the main direction of the French army would be Alsace and Lorraine, the territories that France had lost in the Franco-Prussian War and had been trying to regain.Attack theory was very popular in France at that time. If Chaffee advocated defense, he would not be reused in the early stage like Petain.The heavy losses at Verdun and somme were inevitable. The modern German army was the strongest in the world before The second World War. Like Tsarist Russia, which was directly defeated and turned into the Soviet Union, France in World War I resisted at least until the end of the war.After the outbreak of the Second World War, it is the lack of marshal Chaffee command, the French army not only a thousand miles, and The rapid loss of Paris, but also appears that Chaffee is precious, Chaffee died in 1931.Although Chaffee slightly dull, but still can be regarded as a generation of generals!Finally, ask for attention!